Attribute Agreement Analysis
• Every time someone makes a choice – like, “Is this the correct candidate?” – it's critical that the decision-maker would choose the identical choice again which others would reach the identical conclusion. Attribute agreement analysis measures whether or not several people making a judgment or assessment of the identical item would have a high level of agreement among themselves.
• Helps to characterize the standard of the info
• Determines the world of non-agreement • Helps in calibrating appraisers, judges, or assessors for a better level of agreement
• Easy to research with statistical software or a specialized worksheet
• How to Use
• Step 1. Set-up a structured study where variety of things are assessed over once by over one assessor. Have the things judged by an expert, which can be stated because the “standard” (can be one person or a panel – see table below).
• Step 2. Conduct the assessment with the assessors in a very blind environment. do} not know once they are evaluating the identical items and that they don't know what the opposite assessors are doing.
• Step 3. Enter the info in a statistical software package or an Excel spreadsheet already founded to research this kind of knowledge (built-in formula).
• Step 4. Analyze the results: Is there good agreement between appraisers? Each appraiser vs. the standard? All appraisers vs. the standard?
• Step 5. Draw your conclusions and choose on the course of actions needed if the amount of agreement is below a collection threshold. Usually > 80 percent is taken into account to be a decent level of agreement.
• He Gauge R&R method analyses what quantity of the variability in your measurement system is because of operator variation (reproducibility) and measurement variation (repeatability). Gauge R&R studies are available for several combinations of crossed and nested models, no matter whether the model is balanced.
• Before performing a Gauge R&R study, you collect a random sample of parts over the complete range of part sizes from your process. Select several operators willy-nilly to live each part several times. The variation is then attributed to the subsequent sources:
• The process variation, from one part to a different. This can be the final word variation that you just want to be studying if your measurements are reliable.
• The variability inherent in making multiple measurements, that is, repeatability. • A Gauge R&R analysis then reports the variation in terms of repeatability and reproducibility
• The variability because of having different operators measure parts—that is, reproducibility.
Project Managers assume the lead job in arranging, executing, observing, controlling and closing Project’s. They are responsible for the whole undertaking extension, Project group, assets, and the achievement or disappointment of the task.
In the event that you are searching for a profession in IT and thinking about whether a task supervisor position is directly for you, IT Career Roadmap: IT anticipate director might be the best spot to begin. Additionally, consider on the off chance that you have the stuff to be an incredible Project administrator. Project Manager is worried about gathering cut off times. There is a task and it should be finished. Everybody needs to do his/her activity and that is the thing that issues the most.
Project Manager has a strategic methodology. Deals with financial plan, plan, cut off times, documentation, staffing, HR, individuals, and so forth Project supervisors are not there to propel individuals however to keep things composed.
Reports the advancement. Is answerable for conveying reports on the undertaking progress and potential hindrances. Is underneath Project pioneer. They don’t have that much opportunity with regards to individuals. Project manager deals with the Project and that is his principle job. Also deals with the business organization and related exercises and synchronizes work to meet the targets.
Project Managers obligations
A Project Managers, with the assistance of their group, is accused of numerous duties that range the five undertaking periods of a Project life cycle (starting, arranging, executing, checking and closing) beneath.
The Project the board stages cross with 10 information zones. The information zones incorporate combination, scope, time, cost, quality, HR, correspondence, chance acquisition and partner the board.
Coordination the executives: Developing an undertaking sanction
Partner the board: Identifying partners
Incorporation the executives: Developing a task the board plan
Degree the board: Defining and overseeing extension, making a work breakdown structure (WBS), and prerequisites gathering
Time the board: Planning, characterizing, and creating plans, exercises, evaluating assets and action terms
Costs the executives: Planning and evaluating costs, and deciding financial plans
Quality administration: Planning and distinguishing quality prerequisites
Human Resource the executives: Planning and distinguishing human asset needs
Interchanges the board: Planning correspondences
Hazard the executives: Planning for and distinguishing potential dangers, performing subjective and quantitative hazard examination, and arranging hazard alleviation procedures
Obtainment the executives: Planning for and recognizing required acquirements
Partner the executives: Planning for partner desires
Joining the executives: Directing and dealing with all work for the undertaking
Quality administration: Performing all parts of overseeing quality
Human asset the executives: Selecting, creating, and dealing with the undertaking group
Correspondences the board: Managing all parts of interchanges
Obtainment the executives: Take activity on making sure about vital acquisitions
Partner the board: Managing all partner desires
Observing and controlling
Joining the board: Monitoring and controlling the Project work and dealing with any vital changes
Degree the executives: Validating and controlling the extent of the task
Time the board: Controlling the extent of the Project
Costs the board: Controlling task costs
Quality administration: Controlling the nature of expectations
Interchanges the executives: Controlling all group and partner correspondences
Acquirement the executives: Controlling acquisitions
Partner the board: Controlling partner commitment
Joining the executives: Closing all periods of the undertaking
Acquisition the board: Closing all Project acquirements
Notwithstanding specialized information, here are eight Project the board aptitudes sought after. Among these, delicate aptitudes like these 11 relational abilities of powerful undertaking pioneers can likewise help Project chiefs exceed expectations in this exceptionally looked for after job. To step things up here are six characteristics of exceptionally powerful undertaking directors that can help set you apart as one of the genuinely extraordinary ones.
How to Measure Process Capability ?
The capability indices will be calculated manually, although there are several software packages available which will complete the calculations and supply graphical data illustrating process capability. For the instance during this section, we'll utilize a well-liked statistical software package. For our example, we'll utilize data from randomly collected measurements of a key characteristic of a machined part. to higher represent the population values, the sample data must be randomly collected, preferably over time from an oversized production run. some things to stay in mind:
• Our data is quantitative and variable
• Our data consists of 100 measurements
• The target dimension is 25.4 mm
• USL (Upper Specification Limit) = 25.527 mm
• LSL (Lower Specification Limit) = 25.273 mm
• Range = 0.254 mm
First, we'll examine our data with an easy histogram to work out if it could fit a traditional distribution. additionally, we are able to generate a probability plot evaluating our data’s best suited a line further indicating we are 95% confident that our data fits a traditional distribution
Now allow us to examine the method capability report:
• Cp (Process Capability = 1.68
• Cpk (Process Capability Index) = 1.66
Using the graph, we are able to further evaluate process capability by comparing the spread or range of the merchandise specifications to the spread of the method data, as measured by Six Sigma (process variance units). Through examination of the reports, we are able to determine that our example process is in a very state of statistical control. All the information points fall well within the specification limits with a traditional distribution. A process where most the measurements fall inside the specification limits is deemed a capable process. Process capability studies are valuable tools when used properly. As previously mentioned the data gained is usually wont to reduce waste and improve product quality. additionally, by knowing your process capabilities, the planning team can work with manufacturing to enhance product quality, and processes that are “not in control” could also be targeted for improvement. During a typical Kaizen event or other quality improvement initiatives, Process Capability is calculated at the beginning and end of the study to live the amount of improvement achieved. Accurate knowledge of process capability enables management to form decisions regarding where to use available resources supported data.
It’s a management tool used to identify the potential risks associated in a business process in advance, assessing them and taking preventive measures to minimize or eradicate the risk.
These can be financial uncertainty, accidents, legal liabilities and natural disaster, data related & security threats.
Every organisation has the risk of inherent and unexpected events that can result in losses or may lead to permanently close the business if not handled properly. By implementing the risk management plans which helps in establishing the procedures to avoid potential risks and minimizes their impact on the organization.
Benefits of Risk Management
A safe & secured environment is created
Protects human lives & assets from potential risks
More stabilized business processes
Safeguards Company & environment
Risk Management Strategies
Establish context: A criteria should be established to evaluate the risk and framework of analysis is to be defined
Risk Identification: Potential risks that can influence any project or process in a company in a negative direction are identified & defined.
Risk Analysis: After identifying the risks a clear analysis is done to understand the risk in detail and its influence on the goals of the organisation.
Risk Evaluation: The analysed risks are evaluated based on the likelihood of occurrences and other aspects based on which the organisation decides on the level of risk acceptance.
Risk Mitigation: Based on the severity of the risks a plan is developed which includes risk mitigation, risk prevention & contingency plans.
Risk Monitoring: Continuously monitor and track new and existing risks & update.
Communication: All the shareholders should be included at all levels of risk management.
Risk Management Approaches:
Risk Avoidance: Wherever possible avoid the costly risks & consequences of a risk event.
Risk Reduction: By reducing the scope of projects or processes we can reduce the amount of risk we can take.
Risk Sharing: Risks sometimes can be shared internally or externally like to a business partner or a vendor.
Risk Retaining: It is worth retaining some risks where in the associated profits are higher than the risks.
Project Leaders are responsible for Project exercises and assume a urgent job in guaranteeing every part in a group are contributing and increasing the value of the task. This would expect you to be comfortable with group the executives, information compromise and time-following.
So as to be all the more firmly included, however, you ought to be good to go up your sleeves and do a portion of the more mind boggling, time or undesirable undertakings yourself. In addition to the fact that it reminds groups to be at their best during the undertaking's run-time yet additionally lets them contact you rapidly on the off chance that they're stuck or falling behind. Here are a couple of zones that avow your own fit when you assume the job of an undertaking head for your business-
Credit to a project’s success goes to them the most amount as their project teams, given how influential they're in bringing out diverse skills in time and building a supportive network internally. variety of the project leadership skills you’ll need to advance professionally would include –
1. Inspiring and motivating: While there are several leadership styles, the proper project leader is one who demonstrates his/her readiness to feature value to the project. it would be as basic as managing resources across multiple projects to identifying ways to boost employee performance.
2. Negotiation: A skill best seen during the bidding stage; negotiation skills not only win you feasible contracts but also allows you to speak with different stakeholders during a language they understand.
3. Communication: Most of the time spent by Project leader will be in conversations with clients, team members and client bodies. Not only will it assist you align roles to the company vision but also will enable you to establish work from your team’s perspective.
4. Future-proofing talent: Digital intervention are governing the its usage and future skills. As cited by PMI’s 2019 Pulse survey, a critical component of the project management technology quotient (PMTQ) is to acknowledge and recruit for the abilities needed to drive AI-themed applications.
5. Create a system thinking circle of influence: Good Networkers will develop the relationship with the inter departmental business ties. This way, you stay informed of resources with the correct cultural mindsets, ableness and skills, which are available handy within the longer term once you bought to search out the correct person for a replacement opportunity.
Goal setting helps us build the career you deserve. Goals are aspect of every life which gives you the right direction & focus for reaching the objectives. By this one can optimally utilize all the resources to excel without which it is difficult to reach the goals.
A SMART goal helps you to guide a goal setting. SMART is an acronym for
Specific: Clear well defined & unambiguous
Measurable: The progress towards achievement of goal is to be measured by specific criteria
Achievable: Possible to achieve
Realistic: Possible, realistic & within reach
Timely: The goals are to be achieved with in a time frame.
Specific: Goals which are specific are simple & easy to achieve. This can be accomplished by 5W method.
Who is responsible for the goal?
What has to be accomplished?
Where the goal has to be achieved?
When the goal should be achieved?
Why the goal should be achieved?
Measurable: A criteria should be determined for measuring the progress of the goal without which you cannot track to reach your goal. To reach a goal check:
How to identify if I have reached the goal?
How can I measure?
Achievable: The smart goal should be attainable using this we have to find the ways to reach the goal. The goals should be well defined to achieve it. Ask yourself does all the resources are available to achieve it, has it been achieved before.
Realistic: The smart goal should be realistic to be achieved with the available resources. The goals are realistic when you feel it is possible to achieve. Is it within reach with the given time & and resources.
Timely: The smart goals should be time bound within limits. The goal without time limits will lack motivation to achieve the goals. Verify if your goals have a time deadline.
Design of Experiments:
Six Sigma strives to forestall process variation because variation hinders a process’s ability to reliably and consistently deliver high-quality products or services. the look of Experiments (DOE) method allows quality teams to together investigate multiple potential causes of process variation. DOE is additionally is additionally called Designed Experiments or Experimental Design and begins by identifying the key factors that would cause process variance. The Designed Experiments tool contains three elements. for instance, if the DOE were used on the method of creating a pizza the weather would come with the following:
- Factors – These are inputs to the method. Factors are studied as either controllable or uncontrollable variables. Factors within the pizza example include the oven, dough, sauce, and toppings.
Levels – These are the potential settings of every factor. the degree within the pizza making process are the temperature of the oven, the cooking time and therefore the amount of sauce and toppings used.
Response – this can be the output of the experiment. DOE strives for a measurable output that's influenced by the factors and their differing levels. The response or output from the instance is how the pizza tastes.
Select the Factors
There are often variety of inputs in an exceedingly process that may affect the output. The factors that are most relevant to the tip result are those most vital to DOE. These factors are often selected by the project team in an exceedingly brainstorming session. In ordinary resources where time and budget are finite, the team should limit the experiment to 6 or 7 key factors. These factors are controlled by setting them at different levels for every run.
Set the Levels
Once the factors are selected, the team must determine the settings at which these factors are going to be run the experiment. the instance of cooking a pizza demonstrates that some factors are measured in numbers, like oven temperature and cooking time. Some factors are qualitative like which toppings are used; they're measured in categories and are converted into coded units for rectilinear regression analysis. The more levels that are identified for every factor the more trials are going to be required to check these levels. to make sure that an optimal number of levels are selected, specialise in a variety of interest. This range includes settings utilized in the traditional course of operations and also may include settings of more extreme scenarios. The greater the difference in factor levels the simpler it becomes to live variance.
Evaluate the Response
The response is that the outcome of the experiment. Outcomes are most helpful in improving the method after they are often measured in quantitative terms instead of in qualitative attributes. A response that's quantifiable makes the experiment similar temperament to the extra scrutiny of simple regression techniques. Design of Experiments allows inputs to be changed to work out how they affect responses. rather than testing one factor at a time while holding others constant, DOE reveals how interconnected factors respond over a large range of values, without requiring the testing of all possible values directly. This helps the project team understand the method way more rapidly.
SWOT Analysis helps to understand the internal and external factors associated with organisation. Strategic Planning for the development of the organisation are build with the help of SWOT Analysis.
SWOT stands for Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat. For any improvement of an organisation and to move towards the achievement of vision, mission, goals SWOT helps to frame the strategy for the development.
Strength describes the positive factors the company in which it excels and also it shows the where we stand separate from our competitors. Some factors like assets, technologies, process, skills, knowledge, equipment’s, etc are identified and show our uniqueness from competitors. Strength is an internal factor.
Weakness describes the negative factors which stops the company in performing at its best. It should be written honestly so that we can take necessary actions to improve on those weakness. Some of the factors like debts, improvement required process, gaps in the team, less capital, old equipment’s etc. Why there is a lack in those factors will be examined and minimised. Weakness is an internal factor
Opportunities are the possible external factors and chances that contribute for the success of the organisation. Any changes in the government policies related to tax and any policies which brings positive changes in organisation. Possibilities of increasing trends in the market for our product. Any nearby events where the organisation can take advantage to receive benefit.
Threats are the external factor in the environment which have dangerous outcome to the organisation. The negative affect to the organisation from outside. Some of the factors includes competitors, increased money demand from suppliers, new technologies evolving, market trends, etc.
Once an organisation determines SWOT, they should develop strategies to overcome the negatives and benefits from the positives.
Value Stream Mapping
This is a process of visualizing all the steps in detail in your work process. It is the sequence of flow of goods & information through the process i.e. capturing all the steps necessary to deliver value from start to finish.
As per lean concept the term value is anything that customer is ready to pay for, but whenever we map a value stream, there are certain steps that may not directly add value to the customer but support to ensure that good products are delivered to the customer.
Why should we create Value Stream Mapping
The main purpose of value stream mapping is to identify the scope for improvement by visualizing the useful (value adding) & wasteful steps. Once you identify, evaluate the same we can analyse how does it add value to the customer. This helps in what changes are required in the process for improvement.
Analysis of Value Stream Mapping.
1) Identify the product for the study and improvement. Form a team for doing the analysis; if necessary train the employees in value stream mapping.
2) Determine the problem for value stream mapping of the product from the customer prospective. Understand the customer needs to enhance the value to overcome the competition on price reduction or delays in production leading to supplier change etc.
3) Define the scope of the problem, the limits of beginning & the end of the study.
4) Go around the shop floor to understand the process steps and gather the information required to produce the final product.
5) Study the flow of work & information that adds value to the customer or not.
6) Collect the process data & evaluate the performance. Ex: Cycle time, breakdown time, number of employees etc.
7) Evaluate if each of the process step is valuable, capable, adequate & flexible.
8) Inventory is the main cause of concern & overproduction which in turn leads to focus more on this area.
9) Capture all the process steps for lead times & process times. We can identify the inefficiencies and nonvalue adding items in our production.
10) Use all the collected data to find the waste.
11) Now create a Value stream map which can be used for effective communication and to guide the work
12) By using the value stream map consistently monitor the results and the process can be continually improved.
You may know all the statistics within the world, but if you jump straight from those statistics to the incorrect conclusion, you'll find yourself making a multi-million dollar error. That’s where hypothesis testing comes in. It associate tried-and-tested analysis tools, real-world data, and a framework that allows us to check our assumptions and beliefs. This way, we are visiting say how likely something is to be true or not within a given standard of accuracy.
When using hypothesis testing, we create:
A null hypothesis (H0): the thought that the experimental results are because of chance alone; nothing (from 6M) determined our results.
An alternative hypothesis (Ha): we expect to hunt out a selected outcome.
These hypotheses should be mutually exclusive: if one is true, the opposite is fake.
Once we've our null and alternative hypotheses, we test them with a sample of a full population, check our results, and are available up with a conclusion supported those results.
Note: A NULL hypothesis isn't accepted; we simply fail to reject it. We are always testing the NULL.
Basic Hypothesis Testing Process
The basic hypothesis testing process consists of 5 steps:
Identify the question
Determine the importance
Choose the test
Interpret the results
Make a call.
Read more about the hypothesis testing process.
Hypothesis Testing Terminology
There is many specialist terminology utilized within the arena of hypothesis testing. We’ve collated a listing of the foremost common terms and their meanings, for straightforward lookup. See the hypothesis testing terminology list.
Tailed Hypothesis Tests
Hypothesis tests are commonly spoken in line with their ‘tails’, or the critical regions that exist within them. There are 3 basic types: right-tailed, left-tailed, and two-tailed. Read more about tailed hypothesis tests.
Errors in Hypothesis Testing
When we discuss a mistake within the context of hypothesis testing, the word contains a awfully specific meaning: it refers to incorrectly either rejecting or accepting a hypothesis. Read more about errors in hypothesis testing.
P-values are calculated values that we use to figure out how statistically significant our test results are, and so the way probable it's that we’ll make a mistake. Read more about p-values.
Types of Hypothesis Tests
1 aspect of hypothesis testing which will confuse the new student or candidates is specifically which test – out of an outsized number of attainable tests – is correct to use. We run through the kinds of hypothesis tests, and provides a quick explanation of what all is typically used for. Read more about styles of hypothesis tests.