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Anexas is a consulting organization based in Denmark with wide presence in India and offices in UAE, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Singapore and Canada. Anexas group comprises of Anexas Denmark in Europe, Anexas FZE in UAE, Anexas Consultancy Pvt ltd in India and Anexas Consulting in Middle East.

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Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED)

Akshith Dayanand 12-May-2020

Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED)

Single minute exchange of dies is a tool used in production process for quick changeovers/setup time.

Dr Shigeo Shingo a Japanese engineer contributed to drastic reduction of changeover/set up times. SMED is made up of the following two elements.

  • Internal Element
  • External Element

By focussing on converting all steps into external elements in a SMED process, the process is simplified & streamlined.

If the loss due to production time is more than 20% approx.  then choose SMED tool for improvement.

Internal Element: Steps/elements that can be performed only when the machine is stopped.

External Element: Steps/elements that can be performed while the machine is working.

Covert all the internal steps to external setups:

This is important and involves the operators in changeovers for brainstorming.

  • Check if any steps are presumed to be internal steps.
  • Try to convert all the internal steps to external steps.
  • Keep all the required tools near to the workstation before initiating a changeover.
  • Remove all materials/tools from the work station after the changeover.

Standardize: The tools used for changeovers are replaced with standard sizes. With time when the equipment’s age the performance deteriorates as they are mostly fitted with substandard parts due to non-availability. Hence parts & dimensions of the equipment/tools are to be standardized.

SMED is a tool that can be used to reduce the setup time which allows the flexibility of the organization to produce consistent products as per the customer requirement at the right time with quality.

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Six Big Losses

Akshith Dayanand 11-May-2020

Six Big Losses

It is a tool that can be used to calculate the inefficiencies in a production process. The focus is emphasized on importance of the equipment’s for overall success of any manufacturing industry. Proactive approach in identifying & fixing the flaws in the equipment’s helps the business run smoothly by overcoming the six big losses.

The overall equipment efficiency (OEE) can be enhanced by controlling all the six big losses.

The six big losses are:

Availability loss

1) Unplanned Stops:

 It is the unexpected stops resulting in considerable loss of time against a planned schedule.

Ex: Machine breakdowns, Tool breakdown, Unavailability of spares, unplanned maintenance

Preventive maintenance can be used to overcome unplanned stops in production. Note down all the reasons responsible for the stops. Collect all the relevant data, using AI the patterns of these unplanned stops can be easily detected and can be eliminated by analysing the root cause.

2) Planned stops:

This is contributed by the loss of time of planned stoppage of equipment which is scheduled for production process.

Ex: Setting of Tools, Change of RM, planned breaks, planned maintenance,.

This can be eliminated by predictive maintenance.

Performance losses

 3) Small Stops:

These are the recurring stops ranging from 1 to 2 minutes which are resolved by the operator itself but the cumulative effect is high.

Ex: Cleaning activities, RM jams, improper configuration, blocked sensors

4) Reduced Speed: When equipment runs at a speed less than optimal speed, this contributes to the performance losses

Ex: inexperienced operators, improper maintenance of equipment’s, worn out equipment’s

Quality Loss

5) Production Defects:

Any defective product either rejected or needs rework is a quality loss as all the products are to be manufactured right at the first time.

Ex: Wrong settings, malfunctioning of equipment’s

6) Start-up defects:

Defects that are produced before setting up the normal production cycle contributes to loss of equipment time which in turn affects the OEE.

Ex: poor set ups, testing of equipment after maintenance.

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STAGES OF TEAM FORMATION

Akshith Dayanand 09-May-2020

STAGES OF TEAM FORMATION

Formation of Team and Team members are very important in project success. The Manager role is to observe the different stages of team formation and drive the team towards to the achievement of project goal. Bruce Tuckman a psychologist in 1965 said that a team undergoes 5 stages of development.

The five stages in team formation or Team development:

  • Forming
  • Storming
  • Norming
  • Performing
  • Adjourning

Forming:

  Forming stage is the introduction session for team members. They are excited to know each other and about their skills, roles in polite way. In forming stage the leader provides the induction session about the goals, purpose of team. Mostly this stage is people oriented and not much productivity occurs. People are more interested to know about each other.

Storming:

In storming stage, the conflict starts between the team members. Each of them comes up with their own decisions and not accepting with other team members. Due to their roles, there will be unhappiness and ego which makes them not to have a flexible situation between themselves. In Storming Stage, the role of leader is very important to make sure the conflict does not blow out to a big storm.

Norming:

Every storm should end at a point and likewise Storming stage ends and then comes the Norming stage. Everyone in the team members understand well about their roles and start appreciating the work of other team members. All the planning work for the project is organised with the agreement of team members. Normalised team members now focus towards the direction of travel to achieve the goals. A leader should confirm the team member’s role assignation and clear the doubts related to the project. Even can suggest about their positive and negative as a feedback.

Performing:

Success of a project is not so far.All the team members work in the same path and direction towards the success of a project. Everyone contribute their part as per the roles assigned to them. All feels confident and motivated to work. Team members focus on problem solving; though some problem arises their effectiveness does not reduce. They will solve the conflicts themselves and priority towards the achievement of goal. Leader should monitor their performance and support the team members.

Adjourning:

In 1977, Tuckman added a new stage called Adjourning. In this stage, after accomplishing the project goals and completing the tasks, the team will be disbursed. All the team members will be adjourned and everyone goes in their separate ways. Of course, this stage is the saddest stage of all the stages, as team members should say goodbye and thus the project ends.

In order to have a successful team, the leader should act accordingly in each stage and ensure the success of a project

 

 

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Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

Akshith Dayanand 09-May-2020

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

Overall Equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a management tool which measures the percentage of actual production time against the planned production time, i.e., utilizing the equipment’s to the full potential. Higher the OEE percentage better is the manufacturing process performance.

OEE = (Ideal cycle time X Good products) / Planned production time

But in order to understand the OEE deeper based on three loss factors Availability, Performance & Quality

Overall Equipment Effectiveness = Quality x Performance x Availability (Q x P x A)

Which is obtained by multiplying Availability, Performance & Quality

Quality:

The parts which are defective which needs rework are taken into account. It is nothing but products that are manufactured right at the first time without rework.

Quality = Good products / Total products

OEE takes into account all losses (Stop Time Loss, Speed Loss, and Quality Loss), resulting in a measure of actual productive time.

Performance:

Performance takes into account all the factors that are responsible for the manufacturing process that runs less than the maximum possible speed.

It is the ratio of the net run time to the run time. In practice, it is calculated as

Performance = (Total Products x Ideal cycle time) / Run time

Availability:

It is the ratio of total run time to the total planned time.

Availability = Run time/ Total planned time

Run time is the total planned time excluding the stop time which is unplanned & planned stops

Run time = Planned production time – Stop time

 

 

Benchmarking:

An OEE score of 100% is the perfect example of a manufacturing process producing all good parts, as fast as possible with no stops.

An OEE score of 85% is obtained by world-class manufacturers, whereas the organizations with a score of 60% are typical having a scope for improvement & the organizations with 40% are very common and can be improved drastically by directly minimizing the major stop times as an example.

Using OEE the effectiveness of the manufacturing process can be obtained and timely actions can be taken on three basic losses (Availability, Performance, and Quality) to continually improve the process over time.

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Brainstorming

Akshith Dayanand 09-May-2020

Brainstorming 

A brainstorming session may be very valuable suggests that of generating new ideas and involving a group.

There are some ways to conduct a brainstorming session and to compile the knowledge from the session.

The generation of ideas are generated formally or informally.

Flexibility should exist once selecting an approach as a results of every team and group seems to personality of its own.

Described next may be a proper method, which can be changed to suit specific needs.

To begin this method of gathering information by brainstorming, a group of individuals is assembled in an room with tables positioned in an exceedingly manner to encourage discussion, within the

The participants should have completely different perspectives on the topic to be addressed .

the problem or question is written down so everybody will see it.

the following basic rules of the exercise area followed by the facilitator and explained to the members.

1. Ask each member in rotation for one idea.

it's acceptable for a member to pass a every one.

2. Rule out all evaluations or critical judgments.

it's visiting be tough to come back up with them; hence, wild ideas mustn't be discouraged as a results of they encourage alternative wild ideas.

they will continually be tamed down later.

When there are many ideas, there's additional probability of a decent idea surfacing.

Participants should be at liberty to switch or add the suggestions of others.

For the foremost effective meeting the leader should consider the subsequent guidelines:

1. the matter has to be simply stated

2. 2 or more individuals should document the ideas in plain sight that the participants will see the proposed ideas and build upon the concepts.

3. The name of the participant who suggested the thought should be placed next to that.

change in speed usually happens when somebody proposes an offbeat idea.

this changes typically encourages others to do to surpass it.

5. one session can produce over 100 ideas, but many won't be practical.

6. Several innovative ideas will occur when daily or 2 has passed. A follow-up session can be used to sort the ideas into categories and rank them. When ranking ideas, members vote on each idea that they think has value.

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Brainstorming

Akshith Dayanand 09-May-2020

Brainstorming 

A brainstorming session may be very valuable suggests that of generating new ideas and involving a group.

There are some ways to conduct a brainstorming session and to compile the knowledge from the session.

The generation of ideas are generated formally or informally.

Flexibility should exist once selecting an approach as a results of every team and group seems to personality of its own.

Described next may be a proper method, which can be changed to suit specific needs.

To begin this method of gathering information by brainstorming, a group of individuals is assembled in an room with tables positioned in an exceedingly manner to encourage discussion, within the

The participants should have completely different perspectives on the topic to be addressed .

the problem or question is written down so everybody will see it.

the following basic rules of the exercise area followed by the facilitator and explained to the members.

1. Ask each member in rotation for one idea.

it's acceptable for a member to pass a every one.

2. Rule out all evaluations or critical judgments.

it's visiting be tough to come back up with them; hence, wild ideas mustn't be discouraged as a results of they encourage alternative wild ideas.

they will continually be tamed down later.

When there are many ideas, there's additional probability of a decent idea surfacing.

Participants should be at liberty to switch or add the suggestions of others.

For the foremost effective meeting the leader should consider the subsequent guidelines:

1. the matter has to be simply stated

2. 2 or more individuals should document the ideas in plain sight that the participants will see the proposed ideas and build upon the concepts.

3. The name of the participant who suggested the thought should be placed next to that.

change in speed usually happens when somebody proposes an offbeat idea.

this changes typically encourages others to do to surpass it.

5. one session can produce over 100 ideas, but many won't be practical.

6. Several innovative ideas will occur when daily or 2 has passed. A follow-up session can be used to sort the ideas into categories and rank them. When ranking ideas, members vote on each idea that they think has value.

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Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

Akshith Dayanand 08-May-2020

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

What is Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)?

Total productive maintenance helps workers efficiently care for the equipment and machines they use. This can greatly reduce costs, including money and space tied up with spare parts inventory.

Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a team and shop floor based initiative focused on optimizing the effectiveness of manufacturing equipment. TPM helps workers efficiently care for the equipment and machines they work with, which will reduce costs, including money and space tied up with spare parts inventory.

TPM is a proactive approach to maintenance that aims to eliminate unplanned downtime and maximize equipment effectiveness. Traditionally, only maintenance workers are responsible for continuous maintenance. Under TPM, all workers are responsible for continuous maintenance activities that are preventive rather than reactive. TPM activities can be divided into four key areas

  1. Preventive Maintenance

Preventing unplanned downtime

  1. Breakdown maintenance

Reacting to and fixing breakdown

  1. Corrective maintenance

Making maintenance easier & reliable

  1. Maintenance prevention

Reducing the need for maintenance

The role of the operator:

TPM relies heavily on operators, who take on the responsibility for maintaining their own equipment (known as Autonomous Maintenance). Through regular cleaning and inspection, operators are ideally placed to identify abnormalities early. With the support of maintenance specialists issues can then be managed through planned maintenance preventing an unplanned breakdown at a later stage.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE):

OEE is a measure that reflects the actual effectiveness of a piece of equipment. It measures all losses including those linked to equipment reliability, and provides a key measure for measuring the success of a TPM programme. 

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BRAINSTORMING

Akshith Dayanand 08-May-2020

BRAINSTORMING

What is Brainstorming?

  Brainstorming is a powerful method for generating ideas. It helps to develop creative solutions for the problems.

We do conduct meetings with our team members for any problem without following systematic approach and we end up in few common solutions. But if we follow the Brainstorming techniques and conduct the session, we will achieve quantitative ideas with innovation in lesser time.

Brainstorming term was introduced by Alex Faickney Osborn in 1942, who was the founder of US advertising agency BBDO. In Brain storming session we will generate ideas based on the goals, objectives, problem, purpose for the session being organised and then finally we will discuss on the decision of selecting the ideas.

The most important rules to be followed for a successful Brainstorming

  • Do not discuss ideas with each other during the session.
  • Focus on the quantity of ideas and not about the quality of ideas
  • No criticism towards participants ,rather welcome even the simple ideas
  • Combine the collected ideas and improve the ideas

Types of Brainstorming:

  • Individual Brainstorming
  • Group Brainstorming

Individual Brainstorming:

       Individually a person generates ideas is Individual Brainstorming. A person will feel free to think without blocking the mind without worrying about others. It is more effective than group brainstorming

Group Brainstorming:

 Forming a team and organising the session for generating ideas is Group Brain storming .Procedure for both the individual and group brainstorming remains same. The major advantage of group brainstorming session is number ideas from different persons which help to reduce the problem.

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Just In Time (JIT)

Akshith Dayanand 08-May-2020

Just In Time (JIT)

Just in time is an inventory management technique scheduled to receive all the resources exactly at the time of need of a production process to increase efficiency & to reduce waste.

It is also known by the name Toyota Production System (TPS) introduced by Toyota in 1970’s.

In order to implement JIT effectively the organisation should have steady production, committed quality workmanship, high equipment availability and reliable suppliers. The main objective of the JIT is to minimize the inventory costs, which needs a good understanding of the manufacturer & their suppliers in terms of quality, quantity & delivery of the products. There should be synchronization of between manufacturing process and delivery of material.   

The main elements of JIT are:

1) Waste elimination by adopting lean techniques. The eight types of wastes are

  • Intellect
  • Scrap/defects
  • Waiting time
  • Inventory
  • Motion
  • Transportation
  • Over production
  • Over processing

2) Continuous improvement

  • Identify the problems
  • Simplify the processes
  • Empower the employees to take the ownership of the product/process
  • Poka-yoke to avoid mistakes/errors
  • Ensure high equipment availability using TPM
  • Realign the layout for more efficiency

3) Implementing 5S

4) Multi skilled workforce for flexible changeover & reduction of setup time

5) Adoption of Kanban

 

 

Benefits of JIT

1) Increased cost savings as it may minimize the warehouse needs

2) Quick changeovers can be easily adopted to meet the customer’s demands

3) Savings on investment of raw material costs as only timely needed materials are procured

Disadvantages of JIT

1) Zero tolerance for mistakes which otherwise may end up in complete production halts

2) Difficult to meet the unexpected demands of the customers

3) Frequent deliveries may increase the cost of transportation

4) Production idling may result in unfavourable effect on finance

 

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Quality Circle

Akshith Dayanand 08-May-2020

Quality Circle

It is a team of employees from the same work area who meet on regular basis volunteering themselves in identifying the day to day problems and solve them using all tools and techniques.

Quality circle enhances mutual trust and bridges the gap between the management & their employees.

Objectives of Quality Circles:

  • To increase quality & productivity of a process
  • Reduce cost & improve safety
  • To best utilize the human potential
  • To promote teamwork
  • To motivate employees  for cohesive culture

Rules of Quality Circles:

Every member gets a chance to present an idea per turn

If you don’t have an idea just say pass

Ideas should not be evaluated among the members during their generation

When all the ideas are exhausted they are recorded

Voting method can used for selection of best ideas.

Implementation of Quality Circles:

Mid management representatives from all the departments form the steering committee. This committee makes the policies, controls & monitors all the quality circles in the organization. Employees at all levels are in the organization should attend the orientation program designed for them. Commitment from the top management is very important. One facilitator should be appointed who connects top management, QC steering committee & employees. Supervisors are trained to be Quality circle leaders. Volunteers from the same problem area are allowed to form a team. Regular meetings are conducted to train them initially & now all the suggestions relevant to the QC objectives are encouraged & discussed. Solutions and actions are to be implemented with immediate effect.

Benefits of Quality Circles:

  • By utilizing the skills and knowledge of the employees we can find the solutions for the chronic problems by identifying the root causes.
  • Team work is promoted
  • Productivity & Quality is enhanced
  • Cost reduction
  • Mutual trust is elevated
  • Improved safety 

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